After making a kill, the pack gorges (consuming some 3 to 9 kg [7 to 20 pounds] per animal) and then lingers, often reducing the carcass to hair and a few bones before moving on to look for another meal. Also, wolves with pups experience greater food stresses during this period.

More than thirty subspecies of Canis lupus have been recognized, and gray wolves, as colloquially understood, comprise non-domestic/feral subspecies. Deliberate human persecution because of livestock predation and fear of attacks on humans has reduced the wolf's range to about one-third of what it once was. During the summer, wolves generally tend to hunt individually, ambushing their prey and rarely giving pursuit.

Except out of desperation, wolves tend to avoid hunting on the fringes of their range to avoid fatal confrontations with neighbouring packs. [158] Outside of Turkey, wolf populations in the Middle East may total 1,000–2,000. [84][85] There is at least one case in Israel of a hyena associating and cooperating with a wolf pack.

The wolf (Canis lupus[a]), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to Eurasia and North America.

Wolves are excellent learners that match or outperform domestic dogs.

Should one of the pair die, another mate is found quickly. [187] The Bible contains 13 references to wolves, usually as metaphors for greed and destructiveness. [144] Wolves also occupy much of the northern Rocky Mountains region, with at least 1,704 wolves in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming as of 2015. The muzzle is pale ochreous gray, and the area of the lips, cheeks, chin, and throat is white. A rock crevice, hollow log, overturned stump, or abandoned beaver lodge may be used as a den, and even a depression beneath the lower branches of a conifer will sometimes suffice.

White-tailed deer are a classic example. [58] Prey in North America continue to occupy suitable habitats with low human density, the wolves eating livestock and garbage only in dire circumstances. The character has been interpreted as an allegorical sexual predator.

[123], When wolves encounter prey that flees, they give chase. CIBIO.

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Most large prey have developed defensive adaptations and behaviours. Thorny-headed worms rarely infect wolves, though three species have been identified in Russian wolves: Nicolla skrjabini, Macrocantorhynchus catulinus, and Moniliformis moniliformis. They can use gaze to focus attention on where other wolves are looking.

[150] Since 1980, European wolves have rebounded and expanded into parts of their former range.

[21], In the distant past, there has been gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, and gray wolves. [2] Habitat use by wolves depends on the abundance of prey, snow conditions, livestock densities, road densities, human presence and topography. The ears are covered in short hairs and project from the fur. In Eurasia, a large part of the diet of some wolf populations consists of livestock, while such incidents are rare in North America, where healthy populations of wild prey have been largely restored.

[147], Europe, excluding Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, has 17,000 wolves in more than 28 countries. [62] Wolves in northern Minnesota prey on northern pike in freshwater streams.

[169] The Ancient Romans connected the wolf with their god of war and agriculture Mars,[170] and believed their city's founders, Romulus and Remus, were suckled by a she-wolf. [180] In both Hinduism and Buddhism, the wolf is ridden by gods of protection. [98] This includes the use of vocalization, body posture, scent, touch, and taste. [177] In Chinese astronomy, the wolf represents Sirius as the "blue beast" and the star itself is called the "heavenly wolf". [95] Wolf packs travel constantly in search of prey, covering roughly 9% of their territory per day, on average 25 km/d (16 mi/d).

Light-coloured wolves are common in Arctic regions. His portrayal of wolves has been praised posthumously by wolf biologists for his depiction of them: rather than being villainous or gluttonous, as was common in wolf portrayals at the time of the book's publication, they are shown as living in amiable family groups and drawing on the experience of infirm but experienced elder pack members.

Omissions? [227], This article is about the wolf within the species Canis lupus.

[206], Livestock depredation has been one of the primary reasons for hunting wolves and can pose a severe problem for wolf conservation. The Advent of Canine Population Genomics", "Old World Canis spp. [53], Wolves occurred originally across Eurasia and North America.

Sometimes it is also viewed as a result of historical hybridizations between grey wolves and red wolves or coyotes. [126] Wolves may wound large prey and then lie around resting for hours before killing it when it is weaker due to blood loss, thereby lessening the risk of injury to themselves.

The divergence time for wolves in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia is estimated to be fairly recent at around 1,600 years ago. In areas where wolves inhabit pastoral areas, the parasites can be spread to livestock. [34] The wolf's legs are moderately longer than those of other canids, which enables the animal to move swiftly, and to overcome the deep snow that covers most of its geographical range in winter. The smallest tend to be near the southern end of their distribution (the Middle East, Arabia, and India). [131] The breeding pair typically monopolizes food to continue producing pups.

However, those wolf populations living in Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan are listed in its Appendix I, indicating that these may become extinct without restrictions on their trade. Is Greenland really as big as all of Africa? [38][39] Its molars have a flat chewing surface, but not to the same extent as the coyote, whose diet contains more vegetable matter.

Infections by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus in ungulate populations tend to increase in areas with high wolf densities, as wolves can shed Echinoccocus eggs in their feces onto grazing areas.

[96] The smallest territory on record was held by a pack of six wolves in northeastern Minnesota, which occupied an estimated 33 km2 (13 sq mi), while the largest was held by an Alaskan pack of ten wolves encompassing 6,272 km2 (2,422 sq mi). [163] In East Asia, Mongolia's population numbers 10,000–20,000. Such markers can last for two to three weeks,[95] and are typically placed near rocks, boulders, trees, or the skeletons of large animals. In some cases, a lone wolf is adopted into a pack to replace a deceased breeder. [87] The wolf's basic social unit is the nuclear family consisting of a mated pair accompanied by their offspring. [62][68][69], Wolves typically dominate other canid species in areas where they both occur.

Russian history over the past century shows that reduced hunting leads to an abundance of wolves.

[36] The majority of victims of predatory wolf attacks are children under the age of 18 and, in the rare cases where adults are killed, the victims are almost always women. They tend to increase in size in areas with low prey populations,[94] or when the pups reach the age of six months when they have the same nutritional needs as adults. [196] Farley Mowat's largely fictional 1963 memoir Never Cry Wolf is widely considered to be the most popular book on wolves, having been adapted into a Hollywood film and taught in several schools decades after its publication. One-to-one, hyenas dominate wolves, and may prey on them,[83] but wolf packs can drive off single or outnumbered hyenas. [169] Similarly, in Turkic mythology wolves were believed to be the ancestors of their people. [2][149], Wolves have been persecuted in Europe for centuries, having been exterminated in Great Britain by 1684, in Ireland by 1770, in Central Europe by 1899, in France by the 1930s, and in much of Scandinavia by the early 1970s.

Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting at different elevations for different prey (niche partitioning). It is proposed that these features were specialized adaptations for the processing of carcass and bone associated with the hunting and scavenging of Pleistocene megafauna. The English "wolf" stems from the Old English wulf, which is itself thought to be derived from the Proto-Germanic *wulfaz. [41] Hair length on the middle of the back is 60–70 mm (2 3⁄8–2 3⁄4 in), and the guard hairs on the shoulders generally do not exceed 90 mm (3 1⁄2 in), but can reach 110–130 mm (4 3⁄8–5 1⁄8 in). Smaller-sized animals that may supplement their diet include rodents, hares, insectivores and smaller carnivores. You can easily paint your own wall art, even if you have zero artistic ability.

[74] Wolf interactions with American black bears are much rarer because of differences in habitat preferences.

[92] A new pack is usually founded by an unrelated dispersing male and female, travelling together in search of an area devoid of other hostile packs. Among New World wolves, the Mexican wolf diverged around 5,400 years ago.

The canine coronavirus has been recorded in Alaskan wolves, infections being most prevalent in winter months. The core of their territory is on average 35 km2 (14 sq mi) where they spend 50% of their time. Wolverines escape from wolves in caves or up trees.

Such attacks are unusual but have occurred in Eurasia and India and sometimes have resulted in death. His most famous is the fable of "The Boy Who Cried Wolf", which is directed at those who knowingly raise false alarms, and from which the idiomatic phrase "to cry wolf" is derived.

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